Fixed Depth Hamiltonian Simulation via Cartan Decomposition

Kökcü E, Steckmann T, Freericks JK, Dumitrescu EF, Kemper AF
Phys. Rev. Lett. 129, 070501 (2022)


Simulating quantum dynamics on classical computers is challenging for large systems due to the significant memory requirements. Simulation on quantum computers is a promising alternative, but fully optimizing quantum circuits to minimize limited quantum resources remains an open problem. We tackle this problem by presenting a constructive algorithm, based on Cartan decomposition of the Lie algebra generated by the Hamiltonian, which generates quantum circuits with time-independent depth. We highlight our algorithm for special classes of models, including Anderson localization in one-dimensional transverse field XY model, where O(n^2)-gate circuits naturally emerge. Compared to product formulas with significantly larger gate counts, our algorithm drastically improves simulation precision. In addition to providing exact circuits for a broad set of spin and fermionic models, our algorithm provides broad analytic and numerical insight into optimal Hamiltonian simulations.