Time-resolved measurements provide a new way to disentangle complex interactions in quantum materials due to their different timescales. We used pump-probe Raman scattering to investigate the apical oxygen vibration in YBa2Cu3O6+x under nonequilibrium conditions. Time dependence of the phonon population demonstrated strong electron-phonon coupling. Most importantly, the phonon shifts to a higher energy due to transient smearing of the Fermi surface in a remarkable agreement with diagrammatic theory. We also discuss insights into photoinduced superconductivity reported at lower doping that follow from these results.