An entanglement-based volumetric benchmark for near-term quantum hardware

Hamilton KE, Laanait N, Francis A, Economou SE, Barron GS, Yeter-Aydeniz K, Morris T, Cooley H, Kang M, Kemper AF, Pooser R


We introduce a volumetric benchmark for near-term quantum platforms based on the generation and verification of genuine entanglement across n-qubits using graph states and direct stabilizer measurements. Our benchmark evaluates the robustness of multipartite and bipartite n-qubit entanglement with respect to many sources of hardware noise: qubit decoherence, CNOT and swap gate noise, and readout error. We demonstrate our benchmark on multiple superconducting qubit platforms available from IBM (ibmq_belem, ibmq_toronto, ibmq_guadalupe and ibmq_jakarta). Subsets of n<10 qubits are used for graph state preparation and stabilizer measurement. Evaluation of genuine and biseparable entanglement witnesses we report observations of 5 qubit genuine entanglement, but robust multipartite entanglement is difficult to generate for n>4 qubits and identify two-qubit gate noise as strongly correlated with the quality of genuine multipartite entanglement.